Developments

Sunday, March 05, 2006


Developments





 


Hysteresis:

In example let us take a solution made up of products of which the
percentage varies with the temperature. We consider that the system is
reversible and perfect.

First case we use current mathematical modeling and thus we will have
for an always given temperature the same proportions of product some is
the direction of variation in the temperature.

Second case, we use the mathematical modeling which I propose and in
fact according to direction's of variation in the temperature the
proportions of products will be different at equal temperature. In fact
the exponential analysis explains the phenomena of hysteresis met.

Author Andre p.j.

Example applied to data

experimental:





Law of the extension and comprehension:

To form a general idea, it is necessary to remove the differences to
preserve only the resemblances. It follows from there that the more one
generalizes, the more one removes differences, i.e. of distinctive
natures; in other words, more one increases the numbers of subjects
contained under the same idea, more one decreases the number of their
attributes, which one expresses as follows: the extension of a general
idea is because reverse of its comprehension. A German logician,
Drobisch, which sought to express this law in a mathematical form,
found that the preceding report/ratio is not precisely that of the
reciprocal ratio, but that, ( while the extension grows or decrease
according to a geometric progression, comprehension grows or decrease
according to an arithmetic progression .) Uberweg, Logik, p. III.

Text of Paul Janet



Electricity:

Let us take the typical case of the condenser. The known and measured
laws, shows us well that the condenser passes from a potential to
another while following exponential laws, therefore without zero.

In example, if we supply a condenser using a square signal, the
potential with the terminal of the condenser will describe two kinds of
curve, that depends if it stores electrons or if it rejects electrons.

In the first case the formula Q = P (1 - exp(- t/RC))

In the second case the formula is Q = P (exp (- t/RC))

with Q potential of capacitée

with P potential of the generator of the square signal

with R property the strength of capacity interns

and with C characteristic of possibilitée of emagaziner of
capacitée.



Chemistry



Physics



Text to propose with the coffee philo of Montpellier:

The ZERO DOES NOT EXIST IN SCIENCE

Why an assertion and not an assumption?

Because I present a demonstration by the cause, affirmative, and
universal (the best according to Aristote), which was already
recognized by several people; but the doubt remains open as long as
this assertion was not subjected to the controversy, method prescribed
by Kant.



The construction of the text which follows is made by stages. These
stages have bond only the required goal and are independent the ones of
the others.



1° Some quotations:

a) - Law of the extension and comprehension:

To form a general idea, it is necessary to remove the differences to
preserve only the resemblances. It follows from there that the more one
generalizes, the more one removes differences, i.e. of distinctive
natures; in other words, more one increases the numbers of subjects
contained under the same idea, more one decreases the number of their
attributes, which one expresses as follows: the extension of a general
idea is because reverse of its comprehension. A German logician,
Drobisch, which sought to express this law in a mathematical form,
found that the preceding report/ratio is not precisely that of the
reciprocal ratio, but that, (while the extension grows or decrease
according to a geometric progression, comprehension grows or decrease
according to an arithmetic progression.) Uberweg, Logik, p. III.

Text of elementary Paul Janet Treated of philosophy

b) - There is moreover a specific biological time of the age: it is
Lecomte of Nouy which realized, during the war of 14-18, which the
wounds of the young casualties healed more quickly than those of
oldest. It connected the physiological age and the speed of
cicatrization by a function logarithmic curve.

Source: Lecomte of Nouy P.: "Time and Life", 1 vol., Gallimard
éd., Paris, 1936

c) - Ex nihilo nihil, although this sentence became the maxim of the
epicureans, it was already to lend to old by ancient Greece. The
translation of it is "nothing does not come from nothing"

d) - The legend wants that Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier is the father
of modern chemistry and that alchemy was swept by its work. It makes of
him a solitary man carrying out a scientific revolution vis-a-vis at an
institution linked against him and the author of the famous law
"nothing loses himself, nothing is not created". However, if it is well
at the origin of the fall of the theory of the phlogistique one, it
seems not very probable that he is the author of the "law of
Lavoisier". Moreover, according to certain historians, it rather seems
a scientist established well in the scientific community where it has,
obviously, of combined and the enemies. It does not remain about it
less than work of Lavoisier was of great importance in the history of
chemistry.

source: infoscience.fr/histoire/portrait/lavoisier

e) - many poets described this concept of time continuous but
nonlinear. In example Marcel Pagnol which speaks about the summers of
its childhood.



Here some testimonys among so much of others which prove the
universality of this thought over time. A thought which says that to
equal level of a feeling or a measurement of variation an equal level
of the rotation of the ground around the sun does not correspond
(linear system which is our base of time).



2° philosophical or formal logic Logique.



Since philosophy is the research of the first causes and the first
principles; and since the first principle of any reasoning is the
identity principle, more known under the name of "omne subjectum is
proedicatum sui", the principle which an identity cannot vary in a
reasoning; and since still the zero represent nothing by definition. I
do not think that one can grant to the zero contents other than nothing.

This shows possible the mathematical evolution to consider.



3° Développement of the first two paragraphs.



a) observation 1°: It is not because a method of analysis is
exceeded by a new method of analysis which it does not function at all.
In example in antiquity the astronomers had predicted the exact
positions of planets, with as guiding principle that the ground was the
center of the universe. The easy way was the use of weightings, the
equivalent of our current constants.

b) observation 2°: If I reason in exponential mode and if I use the
exponential system to measure time; with like departure the origin of
each phenomenon; then the zero will not appear any more in science. The
principal current problem is that the exponential mode is represented
using a linear system which is our current reference. This reference
prevents any logical reasoning in exponential mode, of share its
construction on the zero. The solution would be to change reference.

c) observation 3°: It is certain that the followers of Machiavel
will react against a proposal which develops the individual, because
this creates against being able with a social dictatorship.

d) 1° application or logic applied: I) We have the things or
matter, and the phenomena. The principal difference between the two is
that one persists and that the other is an image which appears or
disappears, because a phenomenon needs a thing to appear. In this
reasoning time is a phenomenon. II) One hour for a ten hour old child
represents a tenth of its life, whereas one hour for a sixty twelve
year old person does not certainly represent the same proportion. III).
More one benefits from time, which results in more we have new
experiences; more we have the impression to miss time to be able to
analyze the events. Thus more the value of one second A of importance,
plus time seems to us short; what is a paradox.

e) Application 2 or mathematical demonstration: this method of analysis
enabled me to control the navigable channel of Beaucaire with
Nourriguier; this method enabled me to write and characterize a number
without dimension on curves in considered biologies as impossible to
write;Cette method mathematically makes it possible to say that the
first moments of each new experiment a time tending towards the
infinite one lasts; and this method enabled me to write in 1993: "the
assumption is that time for the man and the majority of the physical
phenomena that I met, varies in an exponential way of first order. That
is to say x(t) = K (1 - Exp(- t/jo)) For the man

- With X = biological time

- With K = the age of death

- With jo = depends on the genetics "

f) In conclusion: In are conclusion, which the controversies of this
thought based on formal logic? And which are the limits of applications
of this thought?

Author Andre p.j.





Hypothesis on time